Article submission guidelines
(Developed by O.V. Kirillova, Cand. Sc. (Engeneering), VINITI RAN head of department, member of academic council (CSAB) of SCOPUS database)
1.1 Abstracts (author’s summary) for academic articles in journal.
In Russian article has brief (up to 10 lines) abstract, containing its originality, main methods and recommendations.
In English should be supplied abstract with short summary of original academic article of bigger volume. Author’s abstract can be published stand-alone, without basic article, thus it should be clear without reading of the whole article. Author’s abstract in English should have translation into Russian.
Characteristics of English-language abstracts
Abstract should make clear essence of research.
With an abstract reader should be able to determine if there is necessity for retrieval of full article for receiving of detailed information.
Author’s summary is the main data source in Russian and foreign information systems and journal indexing data bases.
Author’s summary is available free at journal’s site at Internet and is indexed by web search engines.
Abstract in English is included into English-language article information block posted on English-language version of journal’s site. It is indexed by citation index systems.
Abstract should contain substantial facts of research, should not exaggerate or contain material absenting in original publication.
Abstract structure, repeating structure of an article and containing introduction, tasks and objectives, methods, results and conclusions, would be asset.
Subject, theme and objectives are pointed out only if they are not clear from article name; methodology is viable to descript in case it has originality or it is of concern in the context of research.
Results of work should be described maximally precisely and informatively. There are listed main theoretic and experimental results, measurement data, discovered objective laws and correlations. New results, long-term value data, important discoveries, conclusions denying existing theories, data with practical use importance are preferred.
Conclusions can be accompanied by recommendations, estimations, suggestions, hypotheses described in article.
Details, contained in article title, should not be repeated in the text of abstract.
You should avoid irrelevant general words (ex.: “author of the article considers…”). Historical backgrounds, if they do not make main subject of the article, description of works, published before and conventional facts are not placed in abstracts.
Abstract should be written in technical register, it should avoid complex grammar constructions.
Abstract is recommended to contain key words from the text of the article.
Text of abstract should be laconical and clear, free from unimportant information, irrelevant general words and insignificant wordings.
Text of abstract should be coherent; ideas stated should follow from each other.
Abbreviations and shorthands should, apart from conventional ones, be used in exceptional cases or there must be given full form and definition on first use in abstract.
In abstract there is not references to number of issue in references list.
Abstract extent is determined by contents of article (information extent, their academic value and/or practical importance), but it must not be less than 100-250 words.
English abstract example:
A considerable part of innovative plans concerning implementation of developments with underlying novelties either do not reach the implementing stage, or in fact yield less benefit than anticipated. One of the reasons of such failures is the fact that the manager lacks real tools for planning, evaluating and controlling innovations. The article brings forward the mechanism for a strategic planning of a company, based on the analysis of both inner company’s resources, and outer competitive strength, as well as on searching ways of using external opportunities with account taken of the company’s specific character. Strategic planning is based on a code of regulations and procedures containing a series of methods, the use of which makes it possible for company’s manager to ensure prompt measures of reaction to outer business environment changes. Such methods include: strategic segmentation; solving problems in real-time mode; diagnostics of strategic readiness to operate in the context of the future; working out a general plan of management; planning of the business position of the firm; strategic transformation of the company. Strategic planning process is presented as a closed cycle consisting of 9 successive stages, each of them represents a logical sequence of measures ensuring the dynamics of system development. The developed by the author strategic planning methods result in the recommendation to proceed to “interactive strategic management” which is conceptually based on the constructive potential of the collective body, on searching ways of its building on the basis of effective overcoming accelerating changes, increasing organizational complexity, and unpredictable changeability of the environment.
Its Russian variant:
Значительная часть инновационных планов по внедрению изменений, содержащих в своей основе нововведения, либо не доходит до практической реализации, либо в действительности приносит гораздо меньше пользы, чем планировалось. Одна из причин этих тенденций кроется в отсутствии у руководителя реальных инструментов по планированию, оценке и контролю над инновациями. В статье предлагается механизм стратегического планирования компании, основанный на анализе как внутренних возможностей организации, так и внешних конкурентных сил, поиске путей использования внешних возможностей с учетом специфики компании. Стратегическое планирование опирается на свод правил и процедур, содержащих серию методов, использование которых позволяет руководителям компаний обеспечить быстрое реагирование на изменение внешней конъюнктуры. К таким методам относятся: стратегическое сегментирование; решение проблем в режиме реального времени; диагностика стратегической готовности к работе в условиях будущего; разработка общего плана управления; планирование предпринимательской позиции фирмы; стратегическое преобразование организации. Процесс стратегического планирования представлен в виде замкнутого цикла, состоящего из 9-ти последовательных этапов, каждый из которых представляет собой логическую последовательность мероприятий, обеспечивающих динамику развития системы. Результатом разработанной автором методики стратегического планирования является предложение перехода к «интерактивному стратегическому менеджменту», который в своей концептуальной основе ориентируется на творческий потенциал всего коллектива и изыскание путей его построения на основе оперативного преодоления ускоряющихся изменений, возрастающей организационной сложности и непредсказуемой изменяемости внешнего окружения.
Example of structured abstract from foreign journal:
Purpose: Because of the large and continuous energetic requirements of brain function, neurometabolic dysfunction is a key pathophysiologic aspect of the epileptic brain. Additionally, neurometabolic dysfunction has many self-propagating features that are typical of epileptogenic processes, that is, where each occurrence makes the likelihood of further mitochondrial and energetic injury more probable. Thus abnormal neurometabolism may be not only a chronic accompaniment of the epileptic brain, but also a direct contributor to epileptogenesis. Methods: We examine the evidence for neurometabolic dysfunction in epilepsy, integrating human studies of metabolic imaging, electrophysiology, microdialysis, as well as intracranial EEG and neuropathology. Results: As an approach of noninvasive functional imaging, quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) measured abnormalities of mitochondrial and energetic dysfunction (via 1H or 31P spectroscopy) are related to several pathophysiologic indices of epileptic dysfunction. With patients undergoing hippocampal resection, intraoperative 13C-glucose turnover studies show a profound decrease in neurotransmitter (glutamate-glutamine) cycling relative to oxidation in the sclerotic hippocampus. Increased extracellular glutamate (which has long been associated with increased seizure likelihood) is significantly linked with declining energetics as measured by 31P MR, as well as with increased EEG measures of Teager energy, further arguing for a direct role of glutamate with hyperexcitability. Discussion: Given the important contribution that metabolic performance makes toward excitability in brain, it is not surprising that numerous aspects of mitochondrial and energetic state link significantly with electrophysiologic and microdialysis measures in human epilepsy. This may be of particular relevance with the self-propagating nature of mitochondrial injury, but may also help define the conditions for which interventions may be developed. © 2008 International League Against Epilepsy.
Abstract is a short summary of article of bigger extent academic article and can be issued separately from the article itself and thus should be clear without reference to it. It should reflect substantial things of article and should not contain material, absenting in the article.
Abstract functions as a reference source (for libraries, citation index systems), which allows reader to decide if he needs to read the full text of article.
- 1.Objectives briefly. Historical background of an issue can be supplied only if it is tied with objectives.
- 2.When shortly stating basic facts, it is necessary to remember next rules:
- It is necessary to follow the chronology of the article and go by its headlines;
- Do not include minor particulars;
- You write for competent audience so You can use technical (special) terminology of Your discipline, clearly exposing your point of view and not to forget about the fact You write for international audience;
- Text should be coherent. You should use such words as “consequently”, “moreover”, “for example”, “the benefits of this study”, “s a result” etc. or connect different theses with logical bond;
- You should use active voice, not passive, e.g. “The study tested” instead of “It was tested in this study”;
- Writing language should be compact (dense), thus sentences would tend to be more long.
Here are some examples of improper abstracts: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/guides/write/abstracts.htm?part=3&;
These examples demonstrate that long abstract is not always good abstract.
Here are some examples of good abstracts of different types (reviews, academic articles, conceptual articles, experiential articles):
3.2. References list
References in Latin
Correct description of sources used in references list paves the way for quoted publication will be considered at evaluation of academic activity of its authors and then its organization, region, country. Citation of a journal determines its scholarly status, trustworthiness, editorial board’s operational efficiency etc. Thus, the most important contents of references lists are authors’ names and journals’ titles. For all authors to be considered in citation indexes it is essential to list all the authors’ names in articles’ description. Articles’ titles provide additional information about their contents and it is recommended to include them into references descriptions (see below) even though they are not used in citation index systems. Besides, lack of article’s name may lead to fail of its identification. Sometimes Russian journals do not assign annual volumes and uninterrupted page numbering (from first to last issue) and it makes problems in determining of uniqueness of every quoted article especially when journal submits several publications of an author. But if there is article’s title in references list, then there should be translation of it as to foreign reader could understand it too.
References list in English is submitted in a separate unit and repeats Russian-language references list notwithstanding if there are any non-Russian-language sources. If there are some references to foreign publications then they are completely repeated in Latin characters.
There are set of rules of references formatting aimed at getting maximal number of references to your article in journals. You should:
- 1)Submit English-language description of a journal instead of Russian-language. Most probably, it already exists in international citation indexes;
- 2)Since international citation indexes use English-language descriptions, You should submit translated article titles, like it was submitted in the journal (and then in data base). In that case You may not to specify its transliteration, but there should be indicated language of issue;
- 3)Submit description of original monograph instead of its translated issue because translation indexes include a growing number of monographs. Translated issue may be pointed out in further information in parentheses, see example below;
- 4)Submission of only transliterated description is unacceptable because it is completely illegible and unclear for non-Russian readers. Thus, if there is need to cut description, it’s better to submit its translated description with note “in Russian” in brackets. It mostly applies to anonymous (not works of authorship) works: enactments, normative documents, patents, theses, reports and other works, not typical for citation indexes;
- 5)For description of issues without authors (collection, multi-authors books) it is allowable to submit instead of authors names of one or two editors of an issue;
- 6)For unpublished documents it is possible to point out brief title and indicate “unpublished” in parentheses if it has author – or just “Unpublished Source” or “Unpublished Report” if there is no author of it;
- 7)Inasmuch as Russian sources are difficult to identify for foreign readers, it is recommended to italicize original source name, as it is conventional to foreign journals;
- 8)If publication has DOI, it is essential to point it out in references, because this identifier is the most precise source of information about this publication and it is easy to connect reference to the article and article itself;
- 9)Unwarranted abbreviations in sources’ names are unacceptable since it can oppose identification of source’s name;
- 10)All important publishers’ imprints should be presented in English: for journals – volume and issue name, page number; for books – city and publisher (non-translatable publishing house name is transliterated);
- 11)In description of Russian-language text-books or work-books there is no need to point out their issue type. This information is superfluous here;
- 12)In imprints of references it is necessary to point out page quantity of the book (with “p”) and then page range for a source article (with “pp”);
- 13)Translation of article’s title is given in square brackets; it is possible to use round brackets, but they can have other intended purpose and it can lead to confusion in descriptions;
- 14)Every publication is descripted only once apart from how many times source was referred in article’s text;
- 15)If book in any references list is descripted entirely, then in bibliographical entry there should be noted full size of the book apart from which pages of the book were quoted in text; an exception is occasions when there are used selected chapters of the book – then there are submitted chapter description with noting page range;
- 16)Use only automatic transliteration systems instead of manual transliteration. It can help avoid errors in transliteration.
Last two rules are relevant for any bibliographical description. Here are some examples of references for different publications listed below.
Description of an article from a journal:
Zagurenko A.G., Korotovskikh V.A., Kolesnikov A.A., Timonov A.V., Kardymon D.V. Tekhniko-ekonomicheskaya optimizatsiya dizaina gidrorazryva plasta [Techno-economic optimization of the design of hydraulic fracturing]. Neftyanoe khozyaistvo – Oil Industry, 2008, no.11, pp. 54-57.
Zagurenko A.G., Korotovskikh V.A., Kolesnikov A.A., Timonov A.V., Kardymon D.V. Technical and economic optimization of hydrofracturing design. Neftyanoe khozyaistvo – Oil Industry, 2008, no.11, pp. 54-57 (in Russian).
Second variant contains English-language description of an article, taken from journal.
Description of an article from web-journal:
Swaminathan V., Lepkoswka-White E., Rao B.P. Browsers or buyers in cyberspace? An investigation of electronic factors influencing electronic exchange. Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication, 1999, vol. 5, no. 2. Available at: http://www. ascusc.org/ jcmc/vol5/ issue2/ (Accessed 28 April 2011).
Description of an article with DOI:
Zhang Z., Zhu D. Experimental research on the localized electrochemical micromachining. Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, 2008, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 926-930. doi: 10.1134/S1023193508080077
Description of an article from a continued edition:
Astakhov M.V., Tagantsev T.V. Eksperimental'noe issledovanie prochnosti soedinenii «stal'-kompozit» [Experimental study of the strength of joints "steel-composite"]. Trudy MGTU «Matematicheskoe modelirovanie slozhnykh tekhnicheskikh sistem» [Proc. of the Bauman MSTU “Mathematical Modeling of Complex Technical Systems”], 2006, no. 593, pp. 125-130
Description of conference proceedings:
Usmanov T.S., Gusmanov A.A., Mullagalin I.Z., Muhametshina R.Ju., Chervyakova A.N., Sveshnikov A.V. Osobennosti proektirovaniya razrabotki mestorozhdeniy s primeneniem gidrorazryva plasta [Features of the design of field development with the use of hydraulic fracturing]. Trudy 6 Mezhdunarodnogo Simpoziuma “Novye resursosberegayushchie tekhnologii nedropol'zovaniya i povysheniya neftegazootdachi” [Proc. 6th Int. Symp. “New energy saving subsoil technologies and the increasing of the oil and gas impact”]. Moscow, 2007, pp. 267-272.
Here is supplied full description of a conference with transliterated and translated article title. Basic part includes: italicized original name of the conference(in transliteration if there is not English-language name). There is a translation of its name into English in square brackets. Imprints of conference proceedings (venue, publisher, page range) should be presented in English.
Brief description variant:
Usmanov T.S., Gusmanov A.A., Mullagalin I.Z., Muhametshina R.Ju., Chervyakova A.N., Sveshnikov A.V. Features of the design of field development with the use of hydraulic fracturing. Trudy 6 Mezhdunarodnogo Simpoziuma “Novye resursosberegayushchie tekhnologii nedropol'zovaniya i povysheniya neftegazootdachi” [Proc. 6th Int. Symp. “New energy saving subsoil technologies and the increasing of the oil and gas impact”]. Moscow, 2007, pp. 267-272. (In Russian).
You should not keep translated conference title because it is useless for search of proceedings with it.
Sen'kin A.V. Voprosy vibrodiagnostiki uprugogo kosmicheskogo apparata [Issues of vibration diagnostics of elastic spacecraft]. Problemy teorii i praktiki v inzhenernykh issledovaniiakh. Trudy 33 nauch. konf. RUDN [Problems of the Theory and Practice of Engineering Research. Proc. Russ. Univ. People’s Friendship 33rd Sci. Conf.]. Moscow, 1997, pp. 223-225.
Description of a book (monograph, collection):
Nenashev M.F. Poslednee pravitel’stvo SSSR [Last government of the USSR]. Moscow, Krom Publ., 1993. 221 p.
Ot katastrofy k vozrozhdeniju: prichiny i posledstvija razrushenija SSSR [From disaster to rebirth: the causes and consequences of the destruction of the Soviet Union]. Moscow, HSE Publ., 1999. 381 p.
Lindorf L.S., Mamikoniants L.G., eds. Ekspluatatsiia turbogeneratorov s neposredstvennym okhlazhdeniem [Operation of turbine generators with direct cooling]. Moscow, Energiia Publ., 1972. 352 p.
Kanevskaya R.D. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie gidrodinamicheskikh protsessov razrabotki mestorozhdenii uglevodorodov [Mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic processes of hydrocarbon deposit development]. Izhevsk, 2002. 140 p.
Izvekov V.I., Serikhin N.A., Abramov A.I. Proektirovanie turbogeneratorov [Design of turbo-generators]. Moscow, MEI Publ., 2005, 440 p.
Latyshev, V.N., Tribologiya rezaniya. Kn. 1: Friktsionnye protsessy pri rezanie metallov (Tribology of Cutting, Vol. 1: Frictional Processes in Metal Cutting), Ivanovo: Ivanovskii Gos. Univ., 2009.
Belousov, A.I., Bobrik, P.I., Rakhman_Zade, A.Z. Teplovye yavleniya I obrabatyvaemost’ rezaniem aviatsionnykh materialov. Tr. MATI (Thermal Phenomena and the Ease of Cutting of Aviation Materials: Proceedings of the Moscow Aviation Engineering Institute). Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1966, no. 64.
Last mentioned reference is not complete. It leaves unclear if this book is descripted in whole (issued as a part of institute’s series of papers) or it is an article. Page range or total size of a book is not submitted. In case of monograph there should be pointed out size of the book (235p.) and if it is an article, there should be submitted page or page range for it (pp. 220-222). But this reference would be counted in a search of authors’ works anyway.
Description of a translated book:
Timoshenko S.P., Young D.H., Weaver W. Vibration problems in engineering. 4th ed. New York, Wiley, 1974. 521 p. (Russ. ed.: Timoshenko S.P., Iang D.Kh., Uiver U. Kolebaniia v inzhenernom dele. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1985. 472 p.).
Brooking A., Jones P., Cox F. Expert systems. Principles and case studies. Chapman and Hall, 1984. 231 p. (Russ. ed.: Bruking A., Dzhons P., Koks F. Ekspertnye sistemy. Printsipy raboty i primery. Moscow, Radio i sviaz' Publ., 1987. 224 p.).
If it is possible to find out an original of a translated book, it is better to make description of it instead of translated variant description. Then there is a possibility to find real names of authors instead of their transliterated ones (according to requirements, translation of authors’ names means their transliteration and it is different from its original spelling, example above shows it demonstrably).
If finding out of original book is not possible or translated variant is a digest from several foreign publications, you should descript translated variant in references list.
Description of an unpublished document:
Latypov A.R., Khasanov M.M., Baikov V.A. Geology and Production (NGT GiD). The Certificate on official registration of the computer program. No. 2004611198, 2004. (In Russian, unpublished).
Generator davleniia GD-2M. Tekhnicheskoe opisanie i instruktsiia po ekspluatatsii [Pressure generator GD-2M. Technical description and user manual]. Zagorsk, Res. Inst. of Appl. Chem. Publ., 1975. 15 p.
Pressure generator GD-2M. Technical description and user manual. Zagorsk, Res. Inst. of Appl. Chem. Publ., 1975. 15 p.. (In Russian, unpublished).
Description of web site:
APA Style (2011). Available at: http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx (accessed 5 February 2011).
Pravila Tsitirovaniya Istochnikov (Rules for the Citing of Sources) Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/1034528/ (accessed 7 February 2011)
Description of a thesis or a synopsis of a thesis:
Semenov V.I. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie plazmy v sisteme kompaktnyi tor. Diss. dokt. fiz.-mat. nauk [Mathematical modeling of the plasma in the compact torus. Dr. phys. and math. sci. diss.]. Moscow, 2003. 272 p.
Semenov V.I. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie plazmy v sisteme kompaktnyi tor. Dokt, Diss. [Mathematical modeling of the plasma in the compact torus. Doct. Diss.].Moscow, 2003. 272 p.
Grigor'ev Iu.A. Razrabotka nauchnykh osnov proektirovaniia arkhitektury raspredelennykh sistem obrabotki dannykh. Diss. dokt. tekhn. nauk [Development of scientific bases of architectural design of distributed data processing systems. Dr. tech. sci. diss.]. Moscow, Bauman MSTU Publ., 1996. 243 p.
Description of an all-Union State Standard:
GOST 8.586.5–2005. Metodika vypolneniia izmerenii. Izmerenie raskhoda i kolichestva zhidkostei i gazov s pomoshch'iu standartnykh suzhaiushchikh ustroistv [State Standard 8.586.5 – 2005. Method of measurement. Measurement of flow rate and volume of liquids and gases by means of orifice devices]. Moscow, Standartinform Publ., 2007. 10 p.
State Standard 8.586.5–2005. Method of measurement. Measurement of flow rate and volume of liquids and gases by means of orifice devices. Moscow, Standartinform Publ., 2007. 10 p. (In Russian)
Description of a patent:
Palkin M.V., e.a. Sposob orientirovaniia po krenu letatel'nogo apparata s opticheskoi golovkoi samonavedeniia [The way to orient on the roll of aircraft with optical homing head]. Patent RF, no. 2280590, 2006.
In this description there is not every author as it should be. To file references list properly, you should find the patent and add all authors.
You can use free applications for composition of descriptions available in Internet. You can find them by searching in Google words “create citation”. They can automatically create references according to regulations. They can create descriptions for different types of publications (book, article, web source etc.). Here are some links to such web sites:
Emerald publishing house site has detailed recommendations for composition of references lists for different types of articles according to Harvard references system: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/authors/guides/write/harvard.htm?part=2. Also there are some programs for composing references lists. These recommendations are appropriate for use.